Unit 9 – Constraints – Standard Organisations – U9-D1

Starting off with what it is, a Standard Organisation is of course a type organisation that create, and then implement different standards that are to be used within different industries ranging from IT to construction. For context within IT this accounts for all aspects of IT with networking which includes not only the physical hardware that is utilised when setting up and managing a network, but also the security protocols which are implemented within networking for protecting a network from harm. Although there are plenty of standard organisations that are within and affect us and England (such as BSI, ISO, CEN, ETSI, CENELEC, IEEE), it would become monotonous to cover each one since they all are basically the same when put into layman terms, as well as the only entity that creates and manages the standards for the web specifically are by the W3C (World Wide Consortium). So I have only included one example of a Standard Organisation below.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers): Whilst it originally began its existence as the AIEE (American Institute of Electrical Engineers) which itself was originally founded in 1884 (specific Day & Month are unknown) making it the oldest organisation for standards across the entire globe. It continued as this entity until a merger was agreed between them and the IRE (Institute of Radio Engineers, formed 1912) which essentially ended the existence of both organisations on the 1st of January 1963. Although their name is never explicitly labeled on the standards that they have created as unlike other organisations such as the BSI (British Standards Institute), or the ISO (International Standard Organisation) have their standards labelled BS and ISO accordingly. Despite them not having any standards which are explicitly for the web per se, they do however contain standards which contribute towards we as the general public were and are able to access both the internet and the web. For example there is the 802.11 standards (plural as it is comprised of over 40 standards and specifications). One example of this is with 802.11n.

802.11n: A type of specification for WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) was at the time (2007 over the previous being 2003, the previous being 802.11g) the latest standard for the above that was released as to improve upon the previous efficiencies of the already existing standards, almost making it sound more like an update than anything else. The way it did this was through being the first dual-band standard within 802.11 (allowing for two different standard frequency ranges to be supported simultaneously, I.E 2.4GHz and 5GHz). With the combination of other at the time advancements in different aspects of the standard, by improving upon the Quality of Service (QoS), the power efficiency (less power consumption than previous standards), and the difference with the MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output. which involve having multiple antennas at either end of a communication circuit with them forming a more stable connection over having one antenna connecting straight to the other end without assistance). This allowed for significantly higher number values when it came to transfer speeds over the internet, with one example comparing the difference between and the previous generation being as far apart as between 164 to 564 Mbps. The only reason as to why the range is quite vast from higher to low over 802.11g’s (20 – 26 Mbps) is because of the aforementioned value also including the possibilities of 5GHz.